Saturday 24 October 2020

NASA: Stunning images of galaxies, stars, supernova remnants

The Chandra X-ray Observatory of NASA is a hyper-powerful telescope named after Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. It has a history of delivering some incredible astronomical discoveries. It provided the first light image of supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. In the year 2000, high school students used data from the telescope to discover a neutron star in supernova remnant IC 443.

Now the NASA observatory has relayed some dazzling images of galaxies, stars, planetary nebulas and remnants of a supernova.

This compilation gives examples of images from different missions and telescopes being combined to better understand the science of the universe. Each of these images contains data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes. Various types of objects are shown (galaxies, supernova remnants, stars, planetary nebulas), but together they demonstrate the possibilities when data from across the electromagnetic spectrum are assembled.

M82

Messier 82, or M82, is a galaxy that is oriented edge-on to Earth. This gives astronomers and their telescopes an interesting view of what happens as this galaxy undergoes bursts of star formation. X-rays from Chandra (appearing as blue and pink) show gas in outflows about 20,000 light-years long that has been heated to temperatures above ten million degrees by repeated supernova explosions.

Chandra Messier 82: NASA: Stunning footage of galaxies, stars, supernova remnants
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC; Optical: NASA/STScI

Optical light data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope (red and orange) shows the galaxy.

Abell 2744

Galaxy clusters are the largest objects in the universe held together by gravity. They contain enormous amounts of superheated gas, with temperatures of tens of millions of degrees, which glows brightly in X-rays and can be observed across millions of light-years between the galaxies.

Chandra Abell 2744: NASA: Stunning footage of galaxies, stars, supernova remnants
Credit: NASA/CXC; Optical: NASA/STScI

This image of the Abell 2744 galaxy cluster combines X-rays from Chandra (diffuse blue emission) with optical light data from Hubble (red, green, and blue).

Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A)

On February 24, 1987, observers in the southern hemisphere saw a new object in a nearby galaxy called the Large Magellanic Cloud. This was one of the brightest supernova explosions in centuries and soon became known as Supernova 1987A (SN 87A).

Chandra Supernova 1987A: NASA: Stunning footage of galaxies, stars, supernova remnants
Credit: Radio: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), P. Cigan and R. Indebetouw; NRAO/AUI/NSF, B. Saxton; X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/PSU/K. Frank et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI

The Chandra data (blue) show the location of the supernova’s shock wave — similar to the sonic boom from a supersonic plane — interacting with the surrounding material about four light-years from the original explosion point. Optical data from Hubble (orange and red) also show evidence for this interaction in the ring.

Eta Carinae

What will be the next star in our Milky Way galaxy to explode as a supernova? Astronomers aren’t certain, but one candidate is in Eta Carinae, a volatile system containing two massive stars that closely orbit each other.

Chandra Eta Carinae: NASA: Stunning footage of galaxies, stars, supernova remnants
Credit: NASA/CXC; Ultraviolet/Optical: NASA/STScI; Combined Image: NASA/ESA/N. Smith (University of Arizona), J. Morese (BoldlyGo Instituts) and A. Pagan

This image has three types of light: optical data from Hubble (appearing as white), ultraviolet (cyan) from Hubble, and X-rays from Chandra (appearing as purple emission). The previous eruptions of this star have resulted in a ring of hot, X-ray emitting gas about 2.3 light-years in diameter surrounding these two stars.

Cartwheel Galaxy

This galaxy resembles a bull’s eye, which is appropriate because its appearance is partly due to a smaller galaxy that passed through the middle of this object. The violent collision produced shock waves that swept through the galaxy and triggered large amounts of star formation. X-rays from Chandra (purple) show disturbed hot gas initially hosted by the Cartwheel galaxy being dragged over more than 150,000 light-years by the collision.

Chandra Cartwheel Galaxy: NASA: Stunning footage of galaxies, stars, supernova remnants
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC; Optical: NASA/STScI

Optical data from Hubble (red, green, and blue) show where this collision may have triggered the star formation.

Helix Nebula

When a star like the Sun runs out of fuel, it expands and its outer layers puff off, and then the core of the star shrinks. This phase is known as a “planetary nebula,” and astronomers expect our Sun will experience this in about 5 billion years.

Chandra Helix Nebula: NASA: Stunning footage of galaxies, stars, supernova remnants
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC; Ultraviolet: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSC; Optical: NASA/STScI(M. Meixner)/ESA/NRAO(T.A. Rector); Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech/K. Su

This Helix Nebula image contains infrared data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope (green and red), optical light from Hubble (orange and blue), ultraviolet from NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (cyan), and Chandra’s X-rays (appearing as white) showing the white dwarf star that formed in the centre of the nebula. The image is about four light-years across.

Three of these images — SN 1987A, Eta Carinae, and the Helix Nebula — were developed as part of NASA’s Universe of Learning (UoL), an integrated astrophysics learning and literacy programme, and specifically UoL’s ViewSpace project. The UoL brings together experts who work on Chandra, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and other NASA astrophysics missions.

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra programme. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Chandra X-ray Center controls science from Cambridge Massachusetts and flight operations from Burlington, Massachusetts.

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